In recent years, called “rapid manufacturing” the rapid development of high-tech, industrial design not only opened up the creative space and dramatically speed up the industrial design process, the critical parts manufacturing complex “simplified” in the national economy Other areas show a broad application. At present, China’s leading research and development in this area is the application behind the situation, its value has not yet attracted sufficient attention.
A revolutionary invention
R apidM anufacturing, also known as R apidPrototyping & M anufacturing or A ddi-tiV eM anufacturing, in the last 30 years the rise of the global machinery manufacturing a revolutionary invention, known as the “three-dimensional printers.”
Currently, the most widely used powder material is laser rapid manufacturing technology, the principle is the first computer to design parts of the complex three-dimensional model data is broken down into several layers of flat, then use the laser to metal, ceramic, plastic, sand and other materials by powder graphic data sintered to form a flat shape, and then superimposed by layers of accumulated, as plant growth as a one-time overall shape. As the manufacturing technology will become a simple cube from the bottom two-dimensional overlay, greatly reduces the complexity of the design and manufacture, and even traditional methods can not process can produce the singular structure, such as the closure of the internal cavity, such as nested .
Rapid manufacturing ideas generated in the 1980s. In 1992, DTM Corporation (now merged into the United States 3D System s Inc.) successfully developed the world’s first powder material used laser rapid manufacturing equipment. United States, Germany, Japan and other countries it is used for manufacturing wax, sand the rapid manufacturing, greatly enhanced the technological level of the traditional casting process. Currently, more than 400 precision casting house in Europe, more than 90% of the rapid manufacturing technology. In addition, the process can be directly manufacture of high performance metal parts, but also to create a thin, porous structure and other special parts in the aerospace, automotive and other key areas has broad application prospects. It is understood that the world’s rapid manufacturing technology products and services sales to grow 15 percent a year, European countries only in the aerospace applications has been more than 8% in the sophisticated weapons and equipment and automotive application areas such as rate of 1 / 3.
A new type of strategic technology
Huazhong University is engaged in rapid manufacturing technology research and development one of the main unit. Materials, vice president of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Rapid Manufacturing Center SHI Yu Sheng, rapid manufacturing technology and traditional craft has a unique advantage compared to and characteristics. The first breakthrough in the traditional processing methods to remove the restrictions, no rough and large parts forging, casting equipment and tooling, enabling the integration of material preparation and forming, significantly reducing manufacturing cycle parts, reduce manufacturing costs and improve material utilization.
Second, in a production system with different material components can be manufactured with a wide range of materials and design adaptability.
Third, the entire digital production process can be easily adjusted through the materials and processes and control, to achieve a variety of materials in the same parts of the integrated manufacturing, to meet the different parts in different parts of the performance requirements.
4 is due to the use of non-contact processing methods, there is no tool replacement and wear of the type of problems, no cutting noise, vibration and waste water, waste and emissions, in line with the modern concept of green manufacturing.
SHI Yu-liter that rapid manufacturing technology is adding a new type of digital material forming technology, the geometry of the product and is not binding, it can be said “as long as you want, I can do it.” Therefore, the design components can be used when the optimal structure design, without having to worry about processing problems. This is the biggest advantage of rapid manufacturing technology to expand — where the designer’s imagination, especially in aerospace, weapons, vehicles and other power equipment, the complex structure of the high end.
In recent years, from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing rapid transformation into a new global trend in advanced manufacturing, which has developed into a “strategic technology.” Europe has been as rapid manufacturing techniques to enhance the aerospace, automotive and armament levels of the core areas of one of the key supporting technologies. For example, heavily subsidized U.S. Department of Energy and L osA lom os Sandia National Laboratory, to carry out rapid high-performance metal components manufacturing. In the Air Force, Army and Defense Department co-sponsored, the technology in Boeing, the arms giant Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and other defense suppliers to obtain the practical application of aircraft manufacturers.
China has started in all kinds of major science and technology, “973” plan, “863”, scientific and technological support program, yet the rapid manufacturing technology as a key development area. Some industry insiders believe that government action is necessary to support and promote the technology in our manufacturing a wide range of applications, making our own country of manufacture to change a key.
Applied research and development leading lag
International authorities predict that rapid manufacturing technologies as an independent production, with $ 1.3 trillion market. Although China has the international advanced technology, but the application rate is not high. Rapid manufacturing authoritative international report “Wohlers Report 2010,” Statistics show that the global use of rapid manufacturing equipment into half from the United States, sales of our products accounted for only 4.8% of the world. The reason is not technical and overall quality of equipment, on the contrary, our key technology and equipment in a number of large-scale is a global leader level.
In 1991, Huazhong University of rapid manufacturing center began in the rapid development of manufacturing technology innovation, made a historic breakthrough in 1994, successfully developed China’s first laser rapid manufacturing laminated thin materials and equipment, followed by the successful development of “fast powder laser materials manufacturing equipment and UV curing rapid manufacturing equipment. ” These types of rapid manufacturing equipment has been a series of products, so that I become the United States, Germany, the independent master this advanced technique.
Laser rapid manufacturing of powder materials in the large-scale equipment, the walking in the forefront of the world. The equipment uses a multifunctional material, that can be formed on the same equipment, a variety of powder materials. The German company’s latest EOS uses a machine equipped with a material that can only be used with the same equipment, forming a powder material, and equipment forming space and the scope of application is less than China’s rapid manufacturing equipment.
Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Rapid manufacturing of research of international attention. General Electric company to a customized parts, tungsten-nickel material is O .1 mm wall thickness of the grid structure of metal parts, two-dimensional space the size of mobile phone chips with up to 156 micro-grid. The expert analysis, this may be military products.
Rapid manufacturing technology breakthrough in the manufacturing problems, it is expected to enhance the designer’s confidence and enthusiasm for innovation, and promote China’s transformation from “Made in China” to “China.”